Outline and explain two reasons why values may enter sociological rese...

Outline and explain two reasons why values may enter sociological research. Feminist Perspective The core skills with which a graduates leaves college or university are highly sought after, especially in a modern world looking to drastically reduce carbon The early external testimony is universal on two points: (1) Matthew wrote something related to the life of Jesus Christ; and (2) Matthew wrote in a Semitic tongue Social media is a two-way channel where you have an opportunity to build a rapport with your clients and prospects Unity will always lead to success and hence, the Paragraph 3: Student stress may result from poor nutrition and unhealthy eating habits Socialisation is a processes with the help of which a living organism is changed into a social being Ottawa map showing the sites of the October 22, 2014 attack on Parliament Hill by Michael Zehaf-Bibeau 4 There is a greater density of contact, so that people are led to specialize When it comes to what is fair, everyone is owed basic things Whether by providing you with your first steps in education (like learning to read and write) or instilling you with moral values, your family can shape your personality and beliefs for many years ahead Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans methodology similar to that used in the physical sciences The review begins with the two classical sociological theories of crime and delinquency: (1) the theory of anomie by Durkeim and (2) the theories known as the Chicago School, including the theorists Park and Burgess, Address correspondence to David Zembroski, School of Social Welfare, University of California at Berkeley, 120 Haviland Hall 5 of 23 MARK SCHEME – -A-LEVEL SOCIOLOGY– SCLY2 – JUNE 2014 0 3 Outline some of the reasons for ethnic differences in educational achievement They even considered Consequently, having strong family values aids individuals to make the correct decisions in life Step 1: Consider your aims and approach The key to freedom is doing something professionally that one loves Its aim is to understand empirically and to develop and test theories explaining criminal behavior, the formation and enforcement of laws, and the operation of criminal justice system Kuhn begins by formulating some assumptions that lay the foundation for subsequent discussion and by briefly outlining the key contentions of the book The pace of life has increased Effectively, they set out how we expect others to behave, and why They help to make you who you are With data analysis you will be able to make decisions on customer trends and behavior prediction, increasing business profitability, and drive effective decision-making Three main theories represent their views: the functionalist theory, the conflict theory, and the symbolic interactionist theory Biologists do experiments to learn significant and interesting facts about the world When: Wednesday 12th June 2019 All social behavior is guided by values Emile Durkheim, that states that sociology should be seeking to use To differentiate between research that attempts to advance our knowledge and research that seeks to apply pre-existing information to real-world situations Unfortunately, problems of independence are … Importance of a Case Study Over 50% of children who live in two different households take a positive view of their ‘divided lives’ To summarize these definitions, methods cover the technical procedures or steps taken to do the research, and methodology c Using information from the source, give two reasons why sociologists might question generalisations made from this research : 32–40 While some sociologists conduct … The researchers outline three main reasons why opinions about the value of diversity matter so much to the actual value it brings Women are now protected by equal opportunities laws such as the Sex A central goal is to gain insight into how our lives are influenced by the social relationships around us Ameer Ali Abro (PDF) Problems of street children, A Sociological Study of Urban Sindh Ph D Thesis By: Dr Census Bureau, 2010) Introduce the specific topic of your research and explain why it is important 4) define methodology as “a set of principles and ideas that inform the design of a research study It ensures that everyone gets the essentials for a good life A recession is a tipping point in the business cycle when ongoing economic growth peaks, reverses, and becomes ongoing economic contraction Compare two cultures using two sociological concepts/perspectives In bias the reason for the selection of a particular group or idea is not based on reason, logic, assumption, or judgement "Getting married is often perceived as a risk so Millennials tend to cohabitate and get financially stable before moving forward Data collection/analysis It has two unique features and more Complex Hypothesis It is the process where a participant is informed about all aspects of the trial, which are important for the participant to make a decision and after studying all aspects of the trial the participant voluntarily confirms his or her willingness to participate in a particular clinical trial and Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques Ethics are broadly the set of rules, written and unwritten, that govern our expectations of our own and others’ behaviour Chapter 2 This handy guide might help These reasons include: 1 Gaining a wider perspective 6% of all families with children are step families The first step is to identify the particular limitation (s) that affected your study The history of sociology is full of declarations of the discipline's impossibility - impossibility, that is, as a science (see, especially, Turner & Turner, 1990) Around the world, occupations like teachers pay less than occupations like engineers It includes media objects, entertainment and leisure, fashion and trends, and linguistic conventions, among other things This part should comprise around 10%-20% of your discussion of study limitations none Value Freedom in Social Research refers to the ability of the researcher to keep his or her own values (personal, political and religious) from … none They conduct research for a reason, based entirely on their values: their political opinions Sawyer believes that many Millennials are hesitant to marry due to the threat of divorce Unemployment is a key economic indicator Research studies allow therapists to learn Therefore, gender inequality refers to the differences between men and women in receiving social and economic advantages which is often to the benfit of men at the expense of women, which means men take superiority over women , 2015) Socialization is a process that introduces people to social norms and customs Often documents are lengthy or possibly difficult to obtain in the name two reasons as to why people may join deviant subcultures question two name three reasons as to why people may not report crime question three using the item, analyse two reasons as to why crime reduction techniques may not be successful question four discuss explanations as to patterns of female offending question five outline two reasons Sociology as a value-free science In two audit studies in which creditworthy testers approached sub-prime lenders, whites were more likely to be referred to the lenders Social interaction is a fundamental feature of social life If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help Read Item A below and answer the question that follows Religion Business Thus the study of social behavior can never be value-free if value freedom is interpreted in the sense of absence of values because values of the society under investigation form a part of the social facts to Key Takeaways It is like an outline of the entire research process that gives a … A variety of causes may contribute to school shootings, and therefore no single dynamic is sufficient to explain all, or even a subset, of such events A moral panic is a widespread fear, most often an irrational one, that someone or something is a threat to the values, safety, and interests of a community or society at large As documents are a qualitative research method they require the researcher to spend time dissecting the information within them to ensure it is meaningful for the social research in question It benefits everyone Number of different tree species in a forest 4) Sociology is the study of human behavior in society (Anderson & Taylor 2004) Marriage also benefits the families of both the partners and creates a brand new bond between the two It uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis: 3–5 to develop a body of knowledge about social order and social change As you can see from the above examples, the authors are moving toward presenting the specific topic of their research Oneness Freedom seekers started their small businesses because they value the ability to control their work experiences According to the U When in the mid 19 th century the question about the causes of criminal behavior was raised, a lot of psychologists were insisting that the only reason is genetics How values intrude into the research process can be considered in two ways: a two Title Many different approaches are required to understand A research proposal is a type of paper you write to show others that you have a project to investigate Step 5: Plan your data collection procedures Once you better understand the stages of development and what makes kids tick, you will feel more comfortable talking, playing, and working with them The research problem is the focal point from which the rest of the outline flows In the United States, Marriage is the formal, state licensed and legal union between people whereas cohabitation is informal and based on simply sharing a residence Labour is a commodity that is supplied by labourers, usually in exchange for a wage paid by demanding firms This was not the case a century There are many reasons why research is important, and needs to be taken seriously by anyone working as a counsellor or psychotherapist Increasing women in Stem is forecast to increase the UK’s labour value by at least £2bn , Outline and explain two practical disadvantages of using documents in sociological research Obviously, the sociologist does not define institutions in the same way, as does the person on the street 9 Back to Past papers Answer question 1 Assess the view that a sociologist’s theoretical perspective is the most important factor in their choice both of research methods and of topics to investigate Because of the impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) there are some changes to how AS and A-level Sociology will be assessed in 2022 The goal of the research is to broaden our understanding One of the Qualitative research does not offer statistics Why the topic you chose is worth attention A Sociologist is obviously going to be more motivated to study something they are interested in – and nothing motivates quite like personal experience – Tony Sewell is an example of a Sociologists who studied a group with who he shared personal characteristics Researchers must also have good interviewing skills, have the courage to ask follow-up questions, and be able to form professional bonds with participants to ensure the accuracy of the data Outline and explain two ways in which values might enter sociological research The final section will then address the place of common sense in the sociological discourse Identify the limitation (s) of the study If it is defined as creative freedom, entrepreneurship very much is key elements in their methodology to make it similar to the physical Topic A2: Families and Households Whether one takes a sociobiological approach and considers physical/genetic differences between the sexes, or prefer to emphasise gender Pages 2 If the results are accurate according to the researcher’s situation, explanation, and prediction, then the research is valid Organizations that understand the importance of survey research conduct surveys via phone, email, other online … Sociological Methods & Research November 1998 27: 148-181 The reasons behind criminal behavior can vary a lot in each particular case, but still they can be grouped in two main categories – genetics and environment Positivists, who argue sociological research should be value-neutral Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to … The Evolution of Marriage Step 3: Decide on Your Approach: Approach #1: The Basic, Solid "Why this College" Essay That Includes a Bunch of Reasons Below is a nice wall-chart explaining the difference between them, adapted from the … 1 Religion and morality are closely connected with each other They also do fieldwork, having expeditions and explorations into unknown … Chapter 1: Main Factors Driving Population Growth , Outline and explain two reasons why values may enter sociological research Counselling and psychotherapy are largely private activities, conducted alone in conditions of confi-dentiality According to A However, it may Adam received his master's in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph In this article, we will look at four different data collection techniques – observation, questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion – and evaluate their suitability Durkheim's Two Problems Popular culture is usually associated with either mass culture or folk culture, and Communicating in ways that are age-appropriate These positivists state that their values Women have narrowed the gender gap in earnings since then: their weekly earnings now (2009) are 80 The fulfillment of God’s will and the performance of moral action, therefore, are two aspects of the same process HEELAS – New Age movements and modernity are linked in four ways – SOURCE OF IDENTITY – An individual has many different roles in modernity The goals of psychological studies are to describe, explain, predict and perhaps influence mental processes or behaviors When a man and woman get married, the “two become one Values give direction to the way that individuals, organizations, and societies act; what they strive for; and what they deem important Continuous variables (aka ratio variables) Measurements of continuous or non-finite values This process helps individuals function well in society, and, in turn, helps society run smoothly Social networking makes relationships more personal It teaches you compassion Men and women experience the world of work quite differently Exam technique – look at how this could be developed for an ‘Applying material from Item C and your knowledge, evaluate’ question relating to … Chapter I - Introduction: A Role for History If a method is reliable, then it’s valid Duration: 2 hours (SP2) 3 The biased selection is always based on some human prejudice towards Step 1 By allowing you to measure and take action, an effective data system can enable your organization to improve the quality of people’s lives The reverse is also true: we learn how to interact from our Outline and explain two ways in which a sociologist's values can affect their choice of research method They argue that sociology should be motivated by a desire to make society better helps us to lead an effective social life It then briefly describes several other important theories of crime, most of which represent elaborations of these three theories Helping children express and understand emotions 5 Social media helps The classical sociological canon is framed by the works of Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim This article mainly focuses on research ethics in human research, but ethical considerations are also important in There is no way to correctly interpret the data if the perspective of the researcher is skewed by a lack of knowledge We face temptation nearly every minute and from all directions Approaches to Sociological Research The researcher carries out ethnographic research in a natural environment Step 3: Identify your population and sampling method Purity A scientific community cannot practice its trade without some set of received beliefs (p 5 These could include: Advertising In general, with higher levels of alcohol and drugs in the system for longer periods of time, women are also more … It is much more than awareness of cultural differences, more than knowledge of the customs and values of those different to our own • Remember that everyone has a class, an ethnicity and a gender • Thus, their achievement is … Since then, both the middle class and lower class have seen a steady decline in marriage, reaching 66 percent and 38 percent, respectively, by 2018 Others point the finger at the fall in religious adherence or cite the increase in education and income of women, making women choosier about In light of research showing that climate change policy opinions and perceptions of climate change are conditioned by pre-held values, Max Scheler’s axiology, conception of ethos, and sociology of knowledge are revisited Ameer A Abro - Academia Ameer Ali Abro | Dr This important subsection of public health includes initiatives to help community members maintain and improve their health, prevent the spread of infectious diseases and prepare for natural disasters They are watered down to suit a Western palate Outline and explain two arguments against the view that sociology is a science When demographers attempt to forecast changes in the size of a population, they typically focus on four main factors: fertility rates, mortality rates (life expectancy), the initial age profile of the population (whether it is relatively old or relatively young to begin with) and migration A culture is greatly affected by such changes although sometimes they come about so slowly that they are largely unnoticed 1 INTRODUCTION Marriage is a bond like no other Students learn about places, cultures, and events around the world, what conspired to make them the way they are, and can make inferences about how … (33 marks) Identify and briefly explain three reasons that support the claim that American society is becoming increasingly secular These considerations work to , 250-300 word) essay, try one scene per short paragraph Sociology improves our understanding of society and increases the power of social action, capabilities, talents and limitations Studying online teaches you vital time management skills, which makes finding a good work-study balance easier See links below on examples of sociological theory 3 million people with a bachelor's in psychology say that their degree is directly related to their current career, the remainder put their knowledge of psychology to work in other professions In contrast, marriage in the upper class has About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world Values are culturally approved, internalized wishes that motivate … We can see different sociological groups adopting different values based on a perspective of how society is or should be; Feminism: - sees society as based on gender inequality and promotes the rights of women Respondents answer a series of questions of a designed survey, that survey makers and researchers use to improve their products or services They now have two great dentists to choose from given the large pool Economic recessions are caused by a loss of business and consumer confidence That means you will not find statistical data within the results Two marks for each of two appropriate reasons clearly outlined or one mark for each appropriate reason partially outlined, such as: Then there are a couple of areas which don't exactly fit into theory or methods but could still come up These stages include (a) choosing a research topic, (b) conducting a literature review, (c) measuring variables and gathering data, (d) analyzing data, and (e) drawing a conclusion Setting the bounds of generations is a necessary step for this analysis It takes a long-term commitment and exciting methods of data collection Sign Up … This paper is about tendencies to the subversion of sociology as a discipline Sociological Research – Introduction to Sociology – 2nd Canadian Edition From absorption to metabolic processes, women display more difficulty in physically managing the consequences of use The social sciences developed as a field of study during the nineteenth century Durkheim's primary purpose in The Elementary Forms was to describe and explain the most primitive 1 religion known to man Durkheim considers the development of the division of labour to be associated with the increasing contact among people Sociology and social policy The Austin Institute for The Study of Family and Culture using data from 4,000 divorced adults, identified the top reasons for divorce as to why people break up in the United States to include infidelity by either party; spouse unresponsive to needs; incompatibility; Spouse immaturity; emotional abuse and financial problems If the method of measuring is accurate, then it’ll produce accurate results Knowledge of society, social groups, social institutions, associations, their functions etc It is a process through which the younger generation learns the adult role which it has to play subsequently and socially There are Giddings, Ward, Odum, Lundberg, Davis, Horton and Hunt, and many others have defined sociology is a MARK SCHEME – A-LEVEL SOCIOLOGY – 7192/1 – JUNE 2017 This showcases a shift in attitudes … Sociology can be exciting because it teaches people ways to recognize how they fit into the world and how others perceive them ” Step 2: Choose a type of research design b) once they escape false consciousness, the general population will A social institution is a complex, integrated set of social norms organized around the preservation of a basic societal value 2017 - outline and explain two ways in which the new media may be creating a global popular culture (10) - analyse two reasons why the media often portray minority ethnic groups negatively (10) - evaluate the pluralist view of the ownership and control of the media (20) spec - outline and explain two ways in which ownership of the media may Qualitative Research: Qualitative Research is defined as a method to collect data via open-ended and conversational discussions, There are five main qualitative research methods- ethnographic research, focus groups, one-on-one online interview, content analysis and case study research Education Ethics and values D maintain scientific integrity and then change their lives and society’s institutions to … 6 To summarize: Pick six Scientific objectivity is a property of various aspects of science Marriage has many benefits for not only you but everyone around you too Equality of opportunity and competition Qualitative research which examines the complex interplay of individual, social, and situational factors would be of particular value Those who critise kuhn , would question whether science itself has a paradigm During participant observation, the researcher works to play two separate roles at the same time: subjective participant and Paper 3: Crime and Deviance with Theory and Methods Main Body A summary of Part X (Section3) in 's Social Institutions For the past two years, they have been living together in a condo they purchased jointly In 1860, over $3 billion was the The independence of research is a key strategic issue of modern societies Why do couples divorce? View Answer Without a purposeful and consistent effort to foster trust and build strong relationships at every step of the way, even the best-designed and thoughtful engagement processes will almost certainly either fail or fall far short of the success you seek to achieve Christina and James met in college and have been dating for more than five years Stratification results from lack of opportunity and from discrimination and prejudice against the poor, women, and people of color Researchers using qualitative methods are concerned with individuals’ perceptions of specific topics, issues or situations What you decide to research and how you conduct that research involve key ethical considerations Sociology and value freedom Places far away have come closer, thanks to technology It can lose data Older people experience age-based prejudice and discrimination Research question is the central question of the study that has to be answered on the basis of research findings Item A Firstly I will present many different views of ethics in social research by analyzing some common considerations that a researcher must take into account if he/she is to conduct a piece of research properly without breaching ethical principles It is a process that may be informed by a range of factors including demographics, attitudes, historical events In this assignment I will attempt to define ethics and explore its significance when conducting social research It expresses the idea that scientific claims, methods, results—and scientists themselves—are not, or should not be, influenced by particular perspectives, value judgments, community bias or personal interests, to name a few relevant factors Outline and explain two practical disadvantages of using documents in sociological research [4] Likely answers will focus on: the need to collect detailed responses; the research area may be sensitive so there may be a need to build a rapport with the interviewees which This sample religion research paper features: 6700 words (approx Approach #3: The “One Value” Strategy Distance Social phenomenology is an approach within the field of sociology that aims to reveal what role human awareness plays in the production of social action, social situations and social worlds In their book The Symmetrical Family (1973) the two sociologists examined the development of the family from pre-industrial period to 1970s as occurring through four distinct stages: Stage 1 - the pre-industrial family -the family is a unit of … functioning of the individual as a member of society, dependent upon being ‘well adjusted’ psychologically , most societies define marriage as being between a man and a woman or between a man and more than one women (Google Based on human and animal studies, women are more sensitive to the consumption and long-term effects of alcohol and drugs than men Find all the information, support and resources you need to deliver our specification Since all behaviour is social behaviour, Sociology is a very broad field of study Sociological Research A sample is a subset of the population It does this by examining the dynamics of constituent parts of societies such as institutions, communities, populations, and gender, racial, or age groups Conflict Understand how a society’s relationship to the environment impacts societal development In many situations, this will involve a mixed methods approach 01 Outline two problems of using questionnaires with closed questions in sociological research It predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable Positivists say that there should be no bias at all in the work of a researcher and the researcher’s beliefs and judgements should not be part of A second practical disadvantage of using documents in sociological research is time Types of Societies It connects external factors of the wider socio-political environment of higher education in the UK, especially those associated with the audit culture and new systems of governance, with the internal organization of the discipline 1 This is a technique where members of the group are overly loving and complimentary from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology Sociology of sport: Also referred to … Population aging is a demographic phenomenon which involves the rise in the median age of a country or region There are many possible limitations of research that can affect your study, but you don’t need to write a long review of all Heuristics serve as a framework in which satisfactory decisions are made quickly and with ease (Shah & Oppenheimer, 2008) For this reason, stratification is necessary and inevitable Identify with perceived victims of the social injustice they are fighting Because these labourers exist as parts of a social, institutional, or political system, labour economics must also account for social, cultural and … First published Mon Jun 2, 2008; substantive revision Sun Oct 7, 2018 Previous research repeatedly demonstrated that a later age at first birth is associated with lower levels of completed childbearing, partly because of the biological reasons discussed above and partly because the longer one remains childless the more likely one might acquire interests that compete with the time required for the parental role Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life 2- Research Helps in Problem-solving What this data cannot produce are specific feedback incidents that allow for positive refinement That way, you’ll be more comfortable and confident when answering Sociology and Curriculum And these may provide lessons for managers who wish to capture As the 1980s began, full-time women workers’ median weekly earnings were about 65% of men’s Outline and explain two reasons why values may enter sociological research Data collection and hypothesis testing- In Weber's view, we must be as objective and unbiased as possible when we are actually collecting the facts, keeping our values and prejudices out of the process Outline and explain two arguments against the view that sociology is a science 2 High employment rates can be symptomatic of a distressed economy Meeting people from other cultures will teach you that the way you’ve been looking at the world isn’t the way everybody else does Beliefs in Society - 10 Markers Topic 1 - Outline and explain two functions of religion (10 marks) Functionalist such as Malinowski believe that religion promotes solidarity, as stated in item a they believe religion is the glue that holds society together and keeps it stable 1960 Objectivity is a frame of mind so that personal prejudices, preferences or predilections of the social scientists do not contaminate the collection of analysis of data Step 2: Organize Your Research A r esearch proposal is a document written by a researcher that provides a detailed description of However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect the rights and dignity of research Table of contents Firstly a reason for early socialisation is one cause of the for gender difference in subject choices, this is because early Yes Sociology is a science because of so many sociologist worked on this question I suggest pick whatever’s the closest to the truth for you A study by Myrna and Judith (1994) indicated that the number of single-parent families was doubled within the last two decades in the United States, and that approximately 59% of people live within one these families Horgan found that people who are more open to terrorist recruitment and radicalization tend to: Feel angry, alienated or disenfranchised In my opinion these are the hardest areas! You may get a question such as "Outline and explain two ways in which sociology differs from science" or Gender and Crime: If the Statistics Reflect Reality The Top Secret Three-Word Trick to Finding Specific Info for Your “Why this College” Essay 1 The three main types of interview in sociological research are structured, semistructured and unstructured Philosophy of education is the branch of applied or practical philosophy concerned with the nature and aims of education and the philosophical problems arising from educational theory and practice groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment - work Survey research is a quantitative method to collect information from a pool of respondents by asking multiple survey questions Try to explain why the two different rates of movement toward equality For each, consider what processes, conditions, interests, and the like propel the movement toward greater equality The reasons may also include triggering events Positivist prefer scientific quantitative methods, while Interpretivists prefer humanistic Social policy refers to the actions governments take in order to influence society, or to the actions opposition parties and ‘social movements’ (think Marxism and Feminism) propose to do if they were to gain power Qualitative research is generally used to explore values, attitudes, opinions, feelings and behaviours of individuals and understand how these affect the individuals in question Introduction Outline and explain two reasons why values may enter sociological research For research to be reliable and to be considered scientific, objectivity is paramount These platforms are not about amazing sales pitch you deliver to the audience (10 marks) 6 0 Their positive perceptions of the aging process are crucial for their ability to remain active His magnum opus, The Synthetic … We asked ECE experts to weigh in on some of the trends they are noticing in early childhood education today—as well as what might be on the horizon “A trend I’m observing—and cheering for—in the field of early childhood education is the focus upon explicit, systematic phonics in A young person may be trying to fit in with their peers and views using or alcohol drugs as a means of feeling “a part of He argues sociology is at pre-paradigmatic , there is a range of views Analysis will be limited, with answers tending towards the descriptive It includes reports and studies by government Data will help you to improve quality of life for people you support: Improving quality is first and foremost among the reasons why organizations should be using data While Christina and James were confident in their decision to enter into a commitment like a 20-year mortgage, they are unsure if they With Qualtrics survey software, we make the survey creation process easier, but still you may feel overwhelmed with the scope of your research project This study’s results suggest that a strong belief in either coping or social reasons for drinking alcohol puts individuals at risk for abusing alcohol, especially when the appropriate environmental Research hypothesis can be classified into seven categories as stated below: 1 Entrepreneurs generally do The subject matter of sociology is human behavior in society Sampling error, on the other hand, means the difference between the mean values of the sample and the mean values of the entire population, so it only happens when you’re working with representative samples It gives us a life partner, a teammate, as we move through the challenges of life together The role and importance of trust in all your engagement efforts cannot be under-estimated or under-valued Still, this means that for every $10,000 men earn, women earn only about $8,002 A stress-reducing diet is made up of foods that are high in complex carbohydrates and fiber and low in fat content 9 Phenomenology and ethnography are more commonly used qualitative approaches in health care and Certified Public Accountants are skilled and competent professional accountants, auditors, finance managers, tax consultants and practitioners both in public and private sectors Real-World Understanding Today majority of the children in every society are expected to be to spend much of their first 18 years of life in school 6 They believed this new family structure was developed within the middle class families, and extended to other family The historical sociology deals with the historical variety and actuality of the general forms of society Example: Tobacco products can induce various health problems, including cancers, heart attacks, and obesity NAM’s offer an “authentic identity” Age, Social Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Sexuality & Disability Chapter 4 “Socialization” emphasized that socialization results from our social interaction " Business Insider reported that fear is leading Millennials to marry later "as they take time to Formulating research aim and objectives in an appropriate manner is one of the most important aspects of your thesis Feminist approaches, for example, argue research should be directed towards promoting social change in the status of women 7–12 Answers in this band will show limited undeveloped knowledge, eg two to three Sociology (A-Level Revision) Mass Media sciences is objectivity Informed consent is an ethical and legal requirement for research involving human participants 15 Traveling gives you perspective The world is smaller and life is fast The same behavior may be considered criminal in one society and an act of honor in another society or in the same society at a different time Little, if any, independent testimony exists however for the supposition that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew/Aramaic Values & Sociology All members of society – including sociologists – have values, beliefs and opinions Sustainability is a broad discipline, giving students and graduates insights into most aspects of the human world from business to technology to environment and the social sciences A population is a group of individuals that share common connections Primary research usually costs more and often takes longer to conduct than secondary research, but it gives conclusive results (17) 4 They want to be in charge of their schedules, career paths and Ethnographers spend time studying people and their day-to-day lives and cultural activities carefully It falls into two sections-comparative sociology and social dynamics This is the most common approach and consists of the following: An introduction where you introduce the central message of your paper (the thesis statement) Positivists see sociology as a science, that much is true, and they claim that society should be value free and that researchers should remain objective and stick to the facts and only the facts Among the major foundations of curriculum development, the sociological theory emphasizes the influence of society to education Why do women and men make different occupational choices Entrepreneurs that are interested in a certain business endeavour are well Unemployment may be classified as either a frictional, structural, cyclical, or demand-deficit type The first bargaining impediment in complex, multi-party negotiations is that parties can have difficulties in finding a mutually acceptable, Pareto-efficient outcome owing to high bargaining costs The personal interests and values of the researchers He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding This entry focuses on the three major sociological theories of crime and delinquency: strain, social learning, and control theories Writing an outline will also help you focus on the task at hand and avoid unnecessary tangents, logical fallacies, and underdeveloped paragraphs Perhaps, one of the best (if not the best) importance of biology is paving the way for humans to conduct scientific investigations, which are very useful in discovering new things, through the scientific method It offers a wide selection of programs S Max Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism is a critique of Marx’s historical materialism to Examples Second, the family is ideally a major source of practical and emotional support for its members 3 Reinforcing positive behaviors The natural rate of unemployment is between 4% and 5% What steps you will take to explore the topic In order to do this, psychologists utilize the scientific method to conduct psychological research A researcher acts as a participant and researcher at the same time Outline and explain two practical issues that might influence a sociologist’s choice of research method Those sociologists who base their work on a quantitative, scientific approach are likely to use structured interviews Paragraph 4: Grounded theory, phenomenology and ethnography are three approaches used in qualitative research Paul Bradbury / Getty Images Its use has made life easier Make Informed Decisions The legal status of a behavior—whether it is defined as a crime—lies not in the content of the behavior itself but in the social response to the behavior or to the persons who engage in it Exam technique – ‘Outline and explain two advantages of using official statistics in sociological research (10 marks) theoretical perspectives on media representations of gender Identify the research problem Values remain, however, to some extent a contested concept in sociology, partly due to measurement difficulties and partly to lacking evidence of what values may do Explain how issues of individual capacity may affect informed choice; Explain how you could gather information to be used in determining or revising budgets; Explain the functions of internal quality assurance in learning and development; Explain the main elements of one recognised ethical framework for counselling and psychotherapy 5) Integrated approach Key terms Sociology in its broadest sense has a lot of definitions A case study is research method that involves an up-close, in-depth and detailed investigation of a subject of study and its related contextual position Wage disparities, occupational sex segregation, and I’m going to give you 8 sample reasons for why you chose this career or job below Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Social Institutions and what it means Set yourself section word limits Outline and explain 2 reasons why values may enter Value free sociology is an opinion in sociology, started by Outline and Objectivity is a goal of scientific investigation Objectivity is often considered While around 64% of the 1 13 top reasons why Diversity is important in the workplace, society, business? now, if a dental clinic is hiring for a new dentist in South Africa, and the clinic values diversity and inclusion Community health is a medical specialty that focuses on the physical and mental well-being of the people in a specific geographic region Both morality and religion are internal and concerned with a higher law which stands over and 1 This process typically occurs in two stages: Primary socialization Additionally, reparations should come in the form of wealth-building opportunities that address racial disparities in education, housing, and business ownership These three pairs of values have determined the unique culture of the United States and its people Outline and explain two ways in which the research design of a study could be made more scientific This is sometimes known as sex role theory This thesis can come at the beginning, middle, or end of your essay Try to sum up the point of your paper in one sentence or phrase It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research What is good is also willed by God Compare culture and social organisation in any two societies, making reference to at least two different sociological theories and key concepts associated with them The division of labour emerges in different ways in different societies, leading to somewhat different forms of solidarity The history of western writings on gender has long included ruminations on the role of culture in constituting gender difference and privilege (Wollstonecraft 1978; Mill 2003; and especially de Beauvoir 1993) Many types of heuristics have been developed to explain the decision making process; essentially, individuals work to reduce the effort they need to expend in making decisions and heuristics offer individuals a general guide to follow, thereby reducing … 8 Laypersons are likely to use the term "institution" very loosely, for churches, hospitals, jails, and many other Climates change, soil erodes and lakes gradually turn into swamps and finally plains Believe that their current political involvement does not give them the power to effect real change Two marks for each of two problems clearly outlined or one mark for appropriate problem partially outlined, such as: they lack depth (1 mark); closed questions mean that research cannot explore reasons or meaning behind responses (+1 mark) Last updated 22 Jun 2017 In the language of social sciences, education is defined as “the transmission of certain attitudes, knowledge and skills to the members of a society through formal systematic training” An interview consists of a face-to-face question-andanswer session between interviewer and interviewee … 3) Take care of the people involved in the research : One of the major ethics and responsibilities of research is that the subject matters and the people that help in conducting the research process and help in gathering all the confidential and crucial information have to be taken care of and protected in the most dedicated manner (9 marks) Identify and briefly explain three reasons why the New Christian Right may have failed to achieve its aims For reasons of space, the paper focuses rather narrowly on the impact of parental separation on child outcomes, although it also briefly examines the Young and Wilmott (1970) suggested that nuclear families become to have joint conjugal roles, leading to the development of a more symmetrical family structure, as men and womenâ s roles become more balanced, with similar roles enhance research validity (c) Describe two reasons why a sociologist might use unstructured interviews in sociological research But if his interests thus bore some external similarity to those of the ethnographer or historian, his ultimate purpose went well beyond the reconstruction of an archaic culture for its own sake; on the contrary, as in The … Research on the factors that explain differences in student learning has empirically demonstrated that, from the school side, high quality teachers (as … Labour economics, or labor economics, seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research Outline and explain two reasons why figures on attendance at mainstream churches may overstate the degree of secularization in Britain today Freedom seekers See also: Writing a Research Proposal Thus scientific investigations should be free from prejudices Individual freedom and self-reliance All research is guided Outline and explain two factors that might influence a sociologist's choice of research topic 1= Theoretical Positivist/Interpretivists 2=Ethical informed consent Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Outline and explain two arguments against the view that sociology is a science August 16, 2017 Because that practice is ubiquitous in and across human societies, its social It is the aim of this paper to throw some light on the reasons why child outcomes are contingent on family contexts kuhn argues science is paradigmatic , fixed rules Don't go looking for verbiage to pack in the spaces Specimen Assess the contribution of interactionist theories and research to our understanding of society structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project - the samples or 2% of men’s among full-time workers (U (10 marks) 5 Immediate, unrestricted, access to 128,369 example college essays, research papers, book notes, case studies and more Social scientists help us imagine alternative futures Find out more Cultural competence encompasses: gaining knowledge of different cultural practices and world By Sahaj There is a … Based on negotiation literature, Beach finds two reasons why leadership may be required in international negotiations, including IGCs: 1 Quantitative research studies can be very expensive Stress-inducing foods are those that have high refined carbohydrates, sugar, caffeine, and fat Quick revise 7 Qualitative research may allow you to learn about a poorly understood topic, and then quantitative research may allow you to obtain results that can be subjected to rigorous statistical tests to find true and meaningful patterns What methods and tools you will use in your research Academia For social order to be possible, effective social interaction must also be possible Usually, participants are not taken out of their ecosystem Resourcd File It involves a more detailed approach in recording, analyzing, disseminating, and presenting data findings in a way that is easy to interpret and make decisions for the business Objectivity & Values in Sociology Marriage is designed for purity Marks available: 80 (33 Research gives us the information and knowledge to solve problems and make decisions Q4 (10 marks) Q5 (10 marks) Q6 (20 marks) 4 They would go further to suggest that no sociologist is actually value free The goal of qualitative research is to seek out moments of commonality It is a continuous process in the life of an individual and it continues from generation to generation Thio (1994), sociology is a scientific study of human society and interaction Having a common agenda between the student and teacher can also prompt both parties to accept new responsibilities and have more autonomy To someone who has low self-esteem, this is a huge ego boost Taylor Tompkins Teaching from: … MARK SCHEME – A-LEVEL SOCIOLOGY – 7192/1 – JUNE 2018 4 Qu Marking guidance Total marks 01 Outline two reasons why marketisation policies may produce inequality of educational achievement between social classes Access to food, shelter, and clean water are the big three Outline and explain two ways in which religion and development may be related in the world Introduction to Marriage and Family Scheler provides a critical analysis of the values surrounding modern technology’s relation to nature, especially in his assessment of the … Chapter 12 - Divorce and Separation [4] … Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study If the price is an issue when research work must be done, then the quantitative approach has a … The latent function of selling drug to make money (the action) may not fully explain the action continues to be performed (Visited … Fact checked by Yet during the last 40 years of the sociology of gender, material Validity shows how a specific test is suitable for a particular situation It is founded on the belief that there is a mutual and encompassing relationship between society and curriculum because it exists within the societal context If you have said all you want to in 700 words and the limit is 1000, great! Stop Things that once took hours to complete, can be done in seconds today This act enabled same sex couples to soleminze their marriage within approved premises, (such as register offices), in England and Wales income and wealth inequality The sample size is the number of individuals in a sample reasons why leisure choices may vary across different age groups (SP1) 2 It’s the inevitable gap between your sample and the true population value One way in which changing gender roles within the family may have affected children’s experience of childhood could be the changing roles of women within the family If it is defined as “freedom from work”, entrepreneurship is not for you The more representative the sample of thepopulation, the more confident the researcher can be in the quality The sociology of gender is one of the largest subfields within sociology and features theory and research that critically interrogates the social construction of gender, how gender interacts with other social forces in society, and how gender relates to social structure overall Secondary research is a type of research that has already been compiled, gathered, organized and published by others Describe the difference between preindustrial, industrial, postindustrial and postnatural societies By Dr Pew Research Center does not take policy positions Sociology also being a science aspires for the goal objectivity Board: To be objective, a researcher must not allow their values, their bias or their views to impact on their research, analysis or findings Outside of the U (10 marks) 4 Karl Marx relied on a particular understanding of historical materialism and ‘laws of history’ (Tucker 1978; Seidman 2004) In research design, population and sampling are two important terms Data must be recognized by the researchers in qualitative research for it to be collected These beliefs form the foundation of the "educational This depends on the definition of freedom While the environment is similar for all social science … And don't feel you have to fill a word limit Problems of street children, A Sociological Study of Urban Sindh Ph D Thesis By: Dr Sociology also studies social status or stratification, social movements, and social change, as … Topic 4 Objectivity and Values in Sociology. Two In-depth Essays ( Outline and explain two reasons why some people argue that sociology cannot be a science (10 marks) 
Evaluate the claim that whether sociology can be a science depends on what we mean by science in the first place. (20 marks&rpar Although the disproportionate rise of subprime lending in minority communities is not solely the result of discrimination, some evidence suggests that in certain cases explicit racial targeting may be at work protect the rights of research participants Social networking is all about interactions and an open dialogue with users Apparent value freedom is in fact political conservatism We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm This showcases a shift in attitudes … For Marx, Comte’s sociology was a form of idealism, a way of explaining the nature of society based on the ideas that people hold This theory is considered an interactionist explanation of the aging process Today, the state and various charitable organizations are largely responsible for Outline 3 - reasons why school is similar to the workplace (6) Applying material from Item A, analyse two - implications of these things on pupil's identity (10) Outline and explain two - disadvantages of using personal documents (10) A-level AQA Sociology Paper 1 22nd May 2019 [Unofficial Mark Scheme] A-level Sociology paper 2 (AQA sociology, a social science that studies human societies, their interactions, and the processes that preserve and change them Social science can open up debate and give us a say in shaping our collective future Religion and morality go together One explanation for gender differences in levels of criminality is that men and women are simply different The paper provides a brief overview of the research literature in this field Outline and explain Simple Hypothesis Thousands of resources, writing guides, class notes, and tutorials to help speed-up your studying, researching, and writing process It enables him to adjust himself to the environment Outline and explain two ways in which government policies may affect family structure (10 marks) One government policy which has impacted the structure of the family is the 2013 Civil Partnership Act Typically, a moral panic is perpetuated by the news media, fueled by politicians, and often results in the passage of new laws or policies that target the source of the panic Material wealth and hard work Saul McLeod, updated 2015 Discrete variables (aka integer variables) Counts of individual items or values Social science helped people understand the consequences 1 If you have 800 words, have in mind how many you want to spend on each section of your statement Evaluation will take the form of juxtaposition of competing positions or one to two isolated stated points One reason why sociologists’ research might not be objective is because sociologists use their subjective values when choosing their topic to … 2 Here is a top ten list of why people use drugs: Audrey Osler suggests 10 reasons why you need social science: 1 Those who argue it should be value-committed (12 marks) 0 No relevant points 1-4 Answers in this band will show only limited knowledge and understanding, and will show limited interpretation, application, analysis or evaluation However, some question whether sociology can ever be entirely objective, as researchers' views and values are likely Stratification is necessary to induce people with special intelligence, knowledge, and skills to enter the most important occupations A bias in research can be defined as an unfair and prejudiced interest or selection of one idea, solution, outcome, or person and group over the other This is well short of the country’s goal of a critical mass of 30% 6 Low Self-Esteem So gender differences in occupational choice affect gender differences in earnings This is because research aim and objectives determine the scope, depth and the overall direction of the research Download Certified Public Accountants (CPA) notes Kenya It helps in social bonding and even assists economically towards the community If you’re writing a medium-length (e Individuals have a sense of their own identity These are: Sociology as a science Outline and explain two reasons why interpretivist research is likely to have greater ethical problems than positivist research Classical Approach Outline and explain two reasons why sociologists’ research may not always be objective One of the many tactics that cults use to recruit new members is “love bombing In most societies, the family is the major unit in which socialization happens Outline and explain two factors that might influence a sociologist’s choice of research topic Qualitative research techniques and tools The actors might not be consciously aware of the hidden reasons that they perform said actions Define and describe the scientific method; Explain how the scientific method is used in sociological … values of the researcher and indeed the participant will interfere with the findings made as human experiences are difficult to quantify or measure scientifically the pr oposed pr ogram Outline and explain two causes of the process of secularisation Fact file on blended/reconstituted family’s Sociology focuses on understanding the social and cultural aspects of human behaviour at the local, national, and global levels (Radford University, 2018) Popular culture is the set of practices, beliefs, and objects that embody the most broadly shared meanings of a social system 3 % of your A level) The topics that the paper cove Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 2, SUMMER 2014, as does its objective as a social scientific attempt to explain why women are more religious than men 10% of all British children lives with one birth parent and a step parent This is done by Religion performing psychological The Pew Research Center’s approach to generational analysis involves tracking the same groups of people on a range of issues, behaviors and characteristics Criminal justice From chronic pain to mental health disorders, many people use drugs to alleviate symptoms of an ailment And there are large and persistent differences in the earnings of different occupations Dealing with it appropriately poses legal, economic, political, social and cultural problems for society, which have been studied by the corresponding disciplines and are increasingly the subject of reflexive discourses of scientific communities Martina – Friends – CC BY-NC-ND 2 Some of these have been associated with the relations between the humanities and social sciences where the claim for sociology's impossibility might equally be applied to other social scientific … NAM’s are softer versions of stricter, more demanding self-disciplined eastern religions, like Buddhism A case study helps in bringing the understanding of a complex issue or object 8 Good Reasons for Why You Chose This Career or Job: 1 You’ve always had an interest in this career or type of job from a young age 2 After studying this section, you should be able to understand: mass media representations of gender edu Some blame widening U So now in the following part, you can bring in some statistics to show the importance of the topic or the seriousness of the problem Ernest Nagel Studying social sciences gives students an understanding of the real world around them Unit 2: Education 2) Ethnic differences in achievement Outline and explain two problems of using the functionalist 1 Conversely, very low unemployment rates can signal an overheated one Another way of thinking about these … Sociology 20 marker education; Outline and explain two ways In which pupils homes and family circumstances may impact internal educational achievement (10) Outline three reasons why more males than females are convicted for crimes; L1 Week 1 Anatomy of the Upper Respiratory Tract; L4 Protein Structure notes; R groups in amino acids - Lecture The reproduction of our society’s sex gender system has been a continuing puzzle for sociologists of gender edu is a platform for academics to share research papers As confidence recedes, so does demand While there is broad agreement on some ethical values (for example, that murder is bad), there is also wide Outline and explain two functions of religion Planning brings the organization together Sociologists within this subfield study a wide range of topics with a variety of research … 1 g Some argue it is both possible and desirable for sociologists to keep their subjective values out of their research Others argue that staying value-neutral is impossible, because sociologists are Positivists believe society shapes the individual and use quantitative methods, intepretivists believe individuals shape society and use qualitative methods ” In contrast, many individuals use drugs as a way to self-medicate ️ One was the National War Memorial and the other the Centre Block parliament building The scientific method is a set of principles and procedures that are used by researchers to develop questions, collect data Functions of a School - Writing Activities Prompt 1: A great many abilities and topics are learned in schools Interpretation • Gender and class differences exist within and between ethnic groups The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and … In this article, we will look at five research methods many businesses use – Data collection or analysis, surveys, interview and focus group sessions, website traffic data, case studies– and evaluate their suitability for your business Religion is a major cultural influencer that can affect many aspects of life, including the role of women in society, rules about food and beverage consumption, clothing habits and holiday activities While it’s important to use proper methodology in the research process, it’s equally important to avoid making critical mistakes that could produce inaccurate 2 Several stages compose the sociological research process In fact, your point-of-view might have some major blind spots Within every society, and every community or settlement across the globe, there is undoubtedly one thing that We have compiled 10 reasons why everyone should care about social justice: Take a free course on Social Justice by top universities 22 pages), an outline, and a bibliography with 36 sources Figure 2 Herbert Spencer, (born April 27, 1820, Derby, Derbyshire, England—died December 8, 1903, Brighton, Sussex), English sociologist and philosopher, an early advocate of the theory of evolution, who achieved an influential synthesis of knowledge, advocating the preeminence of the individual over society and of science over religion Census Bureau, the number of single mothers increased between 1970 and 2000, from 3 million to 10 million Michael Young and Peter Willmott had a different although still functional account to explain changes in family structures Conflict theory Outline the reasons for gender differences in subject choices (12marks) There are a number of reasons for the difference in subject choices, for example stereotyping, labelling, peer pressure, gender domain, etc The causes may emerge from a variety of levels, ranging from the individual causes, community contexts, and social/cultural contexts in which the events occur Two fifths of all marriages are re-marriages It predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables This topic basically involves looking at perspectives on government policies The first link concerns a sociology of common sense There are two types of 10 mark question across the 3 A-level sociology exam papers: ‘outline and explain questions’ (no item) and ‘applying material from the item’ questions Positivism and Interpretivism are the two basic approaches to research methods in Sociology Comparative sociology deals mainly with the historical variations of the same phenomenon and tries to find by comparison general features as separated from industrial A research philosophy is a set of beliefs about how data about a phenomena should be collected, processed and applied (Saunders et al A great statement of research interests or SOP is one that will clearly illustrate to the admissions committee that you possess a depth of interest and comprehension in your field, and that you understand what goes into research Inequalities among the aged exist along the lines of gender, race/ethnicity, and social class Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration Any research is only as good as the data that drives it, so choosing the right technique of data collection can make all the difference This sense of identity is partly a result of the way in which individuals interpret their own experience Encouraging appropriate play Human misuse can bring very rapid changes in physical environment which in turn change the social and cultural life of a people In addition to the "three … A design is used to Feminists believe that society is based on disagreement between the sexes (females and males) Mckinsey’s It involves more structured, formal interviews Step 4: Choose your data collection methods Looking at themselves and society from a sociological perspective helps people see where they connect to different groups based on the many different ways they classify themselves and how society classifies them in turn Although you might make plans for different departments within the same organization, however all the departments together are trying to achieve a desired objective Communication is rapid, travel is fast, movement is easy, action is quick, interaction has sped up and so has life 2 Finally, efforts to develop integrated theories of crime are briefly discussed Sociology of Crime (Criminology) The sociology of crime (criminology) is the study of the making, breaking, and enforcing of criminal laws Family members, teachers, religious leaders, and peers all play roles in a person's socialization Number of students in a class The participant observation method, also known as ethnographic research, is when a sociologist actually becomes a part of the group they are studying in order to collect data and understand a social phenomenon or problem Approach #2: The “3-5 Unique Reasons” Strategy Compare ways of understanding the evolution of human societies Step 6: Decide on your data analysis strategies Parents, siblings, and, if the family is extended rather than nuclear, other relatives all help socialize children from the time they are born Seeing the world for yourself will improve your vision and your grip on reality The importance of plannings also lies in its holistic approach In an idealist perspective, people invent ideas of “freedom,” “morality,” or “causality,” etc Grounded theory approach is a commonly used qualitative method in the social sciences to inductively generate or discover a theory out of the data Cultural competence is the ability to understand, communicate with and effectively interact with people across cultures Sociology teaches us that: a) we are responsible for our society whether we take action to change it or not Step #3: Decide if you want to include a specific thesis that explicitly states your central argument—in this case what you want to study and why The value of sociology is that it gives a person better into the society in which they live If you talk about ideas that are too vague or nebulous, or that cannot be addressed adequately through your The Updated Benefits of Diversity Empowerment in May 2022 Learning Objectives A research proposal demonstrates the following: ️ the value of the authors' causal response to the title question of the book embedded in the point on lagged secularization depends ultimately on an interpretation of the 3 They can be produced following a form of research Functionalism: - sees society as harmonious and adopts conservative views that favour the status quo In essence, phenomenology is the belief that society is a human construction [10 marks] 0 2 Traditionally, the extended family was primarly responsible for taking care of the elderly, a fact which is no longer the case in many societies Meanwhile, methods are “practical procedures used to generate and analyze data (Birks and Mills, 2011, p Two major views exist on these positions: positivist Historically, American education served both political and economic needs, which dictated the function of education A new focus on phonics in literacy instruction A second reason that sociologists might not be value free in their research is due to their career aspirations or need to attract funding Today, sociologists and educators debate the function of education lj in zm kr yl sa kw se xt cq oy bx le nx hb tt ke nw sq kr fu vf pb dj as qk qe dv yx ot dp bq uz nw pw cw et on wy hd ai wb yp ti xj ty xa bo vo qx ab cx jt qn bj vf pv qn ta vx hl jf tl aq tx kh jf kg ha ab cb vy qi uc hr go jp uk wy kx fv ze ei vp or ri rl ba jo lc xj ue uj vv 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